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From traditional to modern: Exploration of informatization in China's manufacturing industry Professor Zhang Shu, vice chairman of the manufacturing technology professional committee of the Chinese society of automation, will encounter a series of new problems in the transformation from traditional manufacturing enterprises to informatization enterprises. Avoidance means the loss of competitiveness, and there are many difficulties in moving forward. From an investigation report on the application of MRP-II system in manufacturing enterprises, we can get some enlightenment

why is CAD left behind

China has done a lot of work in manufacturing informatization. From the perspective of CAD and MRP-II technology promotion, CAD has been relatively successful in achieving goals, investment benefits, and enterprise acceptance. Finally, it is CAD that can really adhere to the actual operation and produce obvious benefits

the main reasons for this result are:

CAD projects adopt the strategy of limited objectives (throwing away plates), and the investment is limited, which is accepted by most enterprises. The establishment of CAD training system has created conditions for large-scale promotion, which significantly improves the efficiency of product design and brings benefits to enterprises and designers. From another point of view, CAD involves engineering and technical personnel, who are easy to accept new things and have no conflict of interests, which is also a factor for success

mrp-ii project has a large investment, involving all departments and levels of the enterprise. There is a large gap in the level and concept of personnel, so it is difficult to reach a consensus in understanding. In addition, the management system of the enterprise does not adapt to the introduced software, and the training is only limited to the use and operation of the software, lacking the change of concept and organizational structure. In addition, its promotion and application also contradict personal material interests and powers, such as the power of production scheduling and warehouse management, workers' working hours, buyers' rebates, and so on. Most MRP-II projects are accepted by everyone. But soon after the actual operation, it was put on the shelf, or it could not form efficiency and competitiveness. The investigation and Research Report on the application status of MRP-II system shows that it is over 0 Over the past decade, nearly 1000 enterprises have introduced MRP-II system, with an average investment of 8million yuan each, a total investment of 8billion yuan and an average implementation cycle of 5.7 years. Only a few units (such as Beijing No.1 Machine Tool Factory, Jingwei Textile Machinery Factory, etc.) have persevered and achieved obvious benefits

information engineering is not software engineering

people once defined manufacturing as "an industry that converts raw materials into products through processing". The output is products, and its value-added is mainly reflected in the processing process. With the intensification of market competition and the acceleration of product upgrading, the value-added role of product innovation, marketing and services has significantly improved, and the output of the manufacturing industry is changing from a single product to services and solutions including products. Therefore, today's manufacturing industry has become an industry that processes materials, information and knowledge at the same time

in traditional manufacturing enterprises, the main forms of information generation, transmission, replication and storage are drawings, documents, statements and various meetings. Among departments, the process of information transmission is discontinuous, slow and often interrupted, and there is no continuous information flow. This situation has led to numerous management levels and departments, overlapping institutions, fragmentation, and low efficiency

the wide application of information and networking technology represented by interconnection has led to fundamental changes in product development, business processes, management system and production mode of manufacturing enterprises. Manufacturing informatization has become a general trend and will bring huge economic benefits to enterprises

then, what is manufacturing informatization? The question is not whether we have purchased "multi-functional" software and have "beautiful" computing centers for people to visit, but whether we can complete what we used to do in the traditional way faster and better, reduce the non value-added process and eliminate waste. We must clearly realize that the benefits of informatization come from the organizational structure, business processes and staff quality of enterprises. Computer software, hardware and network facilities are only indispensable tools, means and environment to realize informatization, and are by no means the purpose. We should not compare with each other and blindly pursue the so-called informatization indicators. We must seriously consider risks and calculate the input-output ratio to prevent the occurrence of foam

practice shows that it is difficult to achieve significant results in promoting information engineering in the traditional enterprise organization and business process environment. Do not regard manufacturing informatization engineering as software engineering. Software is not omnipotent. We can't believe too much in the overall solution of software suppliers. Every enterprise has its own characteristics. No software can cover all enterprise businesses and production processes. We must tailor our products to the case

transformation from pyramid to flat structure

any manufacturing enterprise may be an information-based high-tech enterprise, but it may also be a traditional manufacturing enterprise. It mainly depends not on which industry it belongs to and what products it produces, but on how to develop new products, manage and operate the enterprise. If an enterprise takes information flow as the core, makes full use of Internet technology to restructure its organizational structure, adopt new management methods and adapt to the enterprise operation mode of the new economy, it is an information-based manufacturing enterprise in the new economic era

informatization makes the multi-level pyramid management mode of traditional manufacturing enterprises change into a flat structure with fewer levels through the rapid transmission and sharing of network information, so as to speed up the decision-making process

China has made many attempts in manufacturing informatization. However, without changing the organizational structure of the enterprise and pushing the splint into the square hole neutralization system of the left and right 2 chucks, the implementation effect of many technologies is restricted, and the input and output are not ideal. The current situation of most enterprises is that the subsystem operates locally, and it has not yet formed the enterprise wide information sharing and information flow integration

to implement the manufacturing informatization strategy, it is necessary to change the business process degree, integrate the management information system with e-commerce and decentralized networked manufacturing, transform the existing enterprise resource planning (ERP, MRP-II) into a web-based application system, re evaluate the previous electronic data exchange (EDI), and adopt a new specification suitable for decentralized networked manufacturing. For example, ISO tc184scd has formulated six standards for enterprise management informatization, including enterprise modeling and structure, enterprise integration and interoperability, enterprise application integration, cross enterprise cooperation, enterprise services and cost based enterprise activities

the level of enterprise management informatization can be divided into enterprise level (Enterprise Resource Planning), unit level (Manufacturing Execution System) and control level (equipment control system)

the information of each management level should accurately and timely describe the following four questions: what are you planning to do? What is needed (resources, time and place)? What have you got? How to solve the lack of resources and conditions

these problems seem simple at first glance, but it is not easy to be accurate and timely. In particular, it should be pointed out that with the help of manufacturing execution system and workplace informatization, it is extremely important to collect correct working condition data. The basic data (such as working hours, processing progress, fixture requirements, etc.) are inaccurate, and no matter how good the software is, it can not create benefits for the enterprise. We should conscientiously summarize the experience and lessons in this regard

it should be emphasized that workplace informatization (machine tool processing, assembly, material distribution, etc.) is an important part of management informatization. In recent years, with the popularization of mobile communication, great progress has been made

for example, the new generation of machining center not only realizes the automation of machining process and tool exchange, but also is equipped with computer,, digital camera, which can realize the communication functions of voice, graphics, video and text, and timely reflect its method is to thicken the viscosity of oil and the state of working place

the new generation of management information system not only has the functions of planning, statistics, analysis and browsing, but also should have the function of business to business interaction, which makes it possible to realize real-time procurement, customer service, real-time inventory control and transportation management on. Therefore, the essence of management informatization is the information flow management on the internal and external connections of enterprises

on the basis of internal and external connections, it is possible to form network manufacturing alliances with enterprises scattered in different regions and with their own advantages. This mode of production organization is the inevitable trend of information-based economic globalization in manufacturing industry

about the author: Zhang Shu, born in Rugao, Jiangsu Province in 1932. Graduated from Harbin Institute of technology in 1956, majoring in machine tools and tools, and obtained the qualification of mechanical engineer. Currently, he is a professor and doctoral supervisor of the school of mechanical engineering of Tongji University, honorary Dean of the school of mechanical engineering of Shanghai University of technology, executive director of China Society of mechanical engineering, vice chairman of the production engineering branch, and vice chairman of the manufacturing technology professional committee of China Society of automation

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